Stomach Cancer: Causes, Warning Signs, and Treatment
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Stomach Cancer: Causes, Warning Signs, and Treatment

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Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, occurs when abnormal cells in the stomach grow uncontrollably. It is a relatively uncommon type of cancer but can be serious. Here are some key aspects of stomach cancer, including causes, warning signs, and treatment.

Causes of Stomach Cancer:

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection:
    • Infection with H. pylori bacteria is a significant risk factor for stomach cancer. This bacterium can cause chronic inflammation in the stomach lining, leading to changes that may eventually result in cancer.
  2. Age and Gender:
    • Stomach cancer is more common in older adults, with the risk increasing with age. Men are also more likely to develop stomach cancer than women.
  3. Family History:
    • Individuals with a family history of stomach cancer are at a higher risk. Genetic factors may play a role in some cases.
  4. Dietary Factors:
    • Diets high in smoked, salted, or pickled foods may contribute to an increased risk. Additionally, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables may be a risk factor.
  5. Tobacco and Alcohol Use:
    • Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption have been associated with an elevated risk of stomach cancer.
  6. Previous Stomach Surgery:
    • Individuals who have undergone certain types of stomach surgery may have an increased risk.

Warning Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Indigestion or Heartburn:
    • Persistent indigestion or heartburn that doesn't respond to usual treatments may be a warning sign.
  2. Abdominal Discomfort:
    • Discomfort or pain in the abdomen, especially in the upper part, may be a symptom.
  3. Loss of Appetite:
    • Significant weight loss or a noticeable decrease in appetite.
  4. Nausea and Vomiting:
    • Persistent nausea and vomiting, sometimes with blood.
  5. Difficulty Swallowing:
    • Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, which may indicate a blockage in the stomach.
  6. Blood in Stool:
    • Presence of blood in the stool, which may appear black or tarry.
  7. Fatigue:
    • Unexplained fatigue and weakness.


  1. Surgery:
    • Surgical removal of the tumor and affected surrounding tissue is a common treatment.
  2. Chemotherapy:
    • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth and is often used before or after surgery.
  3. Radiation Therapy:
    • High-dose radiation is used to target and destroy cancer cells.
  4. Targeted Therapy:
    • Targeted drugs may be used to specifically target cancer cells, minimizing damage to healthy cells.
  5. Immunotherapy:
    • Immunotherapy helps the immune system identify and attack cancer cells.

The specific treatment plan depends on factors such as the stage of cancer, overall health, and individual circumstances. Early detection is crucial for successful treatment, so individuals experiencing persistent symptoms should seek medical attention promptly.

Preventive measures include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and addressing conditions like H. pylori infection. Regular check-ups and screenings may be recommended for individuals at higher risk due to family history or other factors.

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